Cupping was developed as a means of systematically evaluating a coffee. There are certain charactaristics which distinguish coffee and a “tasting vocabulary” is used to discribe them.
Acidity: the high sparkling notes in the flavor, which may be described as bright, winey or fruity.
Body: this is the mouthfeel and perceived viscosity of the coffee. Some may feel “heavy” and some will feel “light.”
Aroma: the sensation of the gases released from the brewed coffee inhaled through the nose.
Aftertaste: the sensation on the palate after the coffee has been swallowed attributes might be resonant, lingering or fleeting.
For more information on evaluating coffee, the Coffee Cupper’s Handbook by Ted Lingle is an excellent source.